foundation system of burj al arab

What are Class F Fly Ash and Class C Fly Ash?

The Fly Ash is finely divided residue resulting from the combustion of ground or powdered coal. Fly ash is generally captured from the chimneys of coal-fired power plants; it has POZZOLANIC properties, and is sometimes blended with cement for this reason.


Fly ash includes substantial amounts of silicon dioxide (SiO2) (both amorphous and crystalline) and calcium oxide (CaO). Toxic constituents include arsenic, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium, strontium, thallium, and vanadium.

Dumped  Fly Ash in IndiaClass F Fly Ash:

The burning of harder, older anthracite and bituminous coal typically produces Class F fly ash. This fly ash is pozzolanic in nature, and contains less than 10% lime (CaO). The glassy silica and alumina of Class F fly ash requires a cementing agent, such as Portland cement, quicklime, or hydrated lime, with the presence of water in order to react and produce cementitious compounds.

Class C Fly Ash:

Fly ash produced from the burning of younger lignite or subbituminous coal, in addition to having pozzolanic properties, also has some self-cementing properties. In the presence of water, Class C fly ash will harden and gain strength over time.


Class C fly ash generally contains more than 20% lime (CaO). Unlike Class F, self-cementing Class C fly ash does not require an activator. Alkali and sulfate (SO4) contents are generally higher in Class C fly ashes.

In addition to economic and ecological benefits, the use of fly ash in concrete improves its workability, reduces segregation, bleeding, heat evolution and permeability, inhibits alkali-aggregate reaction, and enhances sulfate resistance. Even though the use of fly ash in concrete has increased in the last 20 years, less than 20% of the fly ash collected was used in the cement and concrete industries.
Four inch slump concrete made with Fly Ash
Four inch slump concrete made with Fly Ash

One of the most important fields of application for fly ash is PCC pavement, where a large quantity of concrete is used and economy is an important factor in concrete pavement construction.

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