Terrorist expose themselves or express some demands worldwide through terrorist attacks on building structure, indicating civil engineering structures one of the most desired target. The terrorist often target at hotel, restaurants, and on public transportation or places where civilian has gathered .The attack is highlighted by several recent terrorist attack such as on Moscow Metro Train (2010), Marriott Hotel in Jakarta (2009), and Mumbai (2008) and most notorious twin tower and pentagon attack (2001) which had shown that the destruction of the hotels and other facilities such as public transport and military base has become target of the terrorist. As a result there is a need to increases the resistance of the building materials against explosive loading especially critical government, military and corporate buildings, strategic bridges, dams and also chemical or petroleum plants that are all at risk from terrorist attack.
Pentagon attacks: On September 11, 2001, exactly 60 years after the building's groundbreaking, hijacked American Airlines Flight 77- a Boeing 757-223 was crashed into the western side of the Pentagon, killing 189 people, including five hijackers, 59 others aboard the plane, and 125 working in the building.
Mumbai attacks: The 2008 Mumbai attacks were more than 10 coordinated shooting and bombing attacks across Mumbai, India's largest city, by Islamist attackers who invaded from Pakistani seawaters. The attackers received reconnaissance assistance before the attacks, and when later captured stated that the attacks were conducted with the support of Pakistan's secret service, the. The attacks, which drew widespread global condemnation, began on Wednesday, 26 November and lasted until Saturday, 29 November 2008, killing 164 people and wounding at least 308.
Moscow Metro bombings: The 2010 Moscow Metro bombings were suicide bombings carried out by two women during the morningrush hour of March 29, 2010, at two stations of the Moscow Metro (Lubyanka and Park Kultury), with roughly 40 minutes interval between. At least 40 people were killed, and over 100 injured.
|2008 Mumbai attacks|
Twin Tower attacks: Hijacked American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175 intentionally crashed into twin tower resulting two massive 110-story towers to fail killing near 3000 people.
Most of the building materials is made of concrete which
brittle and has low tensile strength. As a result concrete members exposed to
explosive could not support such loads and stresses that usually take place on
concrete beams and slabs and will result in collapse of the structure, or
severe cracking as well as fragmentation. The design and construction of new
structure and strenghting of existing structure which are vulnerable to
explosive, blast, airplane or missile attack will be discussed in later post.
|September 11 Twin Tower attacks|