foundation system of burj al arab

Damage Repair of Ferrocement

Common types of damage
Ferrocement structures shall be inspected, as part of a regular maintenance programme, to detect any of the following types of damage. Appropriate repair measures shall than be taken.
Delaminations occur when ferrocement splits between layers in laminated constructions due to springing back or bridging of the mesh during construction. Delamination sometimes occurs at or near the neutral axis under impact or flexure when there are many voids in the interior layers. Such areas give of a hollow sound when taped with a hammer or stroked with a steel bar.
A spall is defined as a depression resulting when a fragment is detached from a larger mass by a blow, by the action of weather, by pressure, or by expansion within the mass. Spalls shall be considered large when their size exceeds approximately 20 mm in depth or 150 mm in any dimension, and shall be repaired by replastering.
Spalls are usually caused by corrosion of steel, which causes an expansive pressure within the ferrocement. Chlorides in the concrete greatly increase the potential for corrosion of the steel. Under such conditions, continued spalling is lightly and the repair of local spalls areas may even promote the deterioration of the concrete because of the presence of dissimilar materials.

An area of steel corrosion and chloride contaminated concrete may be considerably larger than the area of spalled concrete, and the full area of contamination rather than the spall itself shall be Broken and replastered.

Fire damage

Ferrocement may be more susceptible to fire damage than conventional concrete because of thin cover.

If the fire were intense enough to release the amount of chemically bound water in the cement, destroy the bond between the cement and the aggregate, or oxidize the reinforcement, the surface would be charred and spalled so that the damage could be easily identified. Full scale removal and repair shall than be required.

Cracks and Local Fractures
Hairline cracks and crazing due to temperature changes or drying shrinkage in the cover coat do not require repair. Continuous wet curing will cause autogenous healing, and a flexible coating will conceal the crack from view. If cracks are caused by continuing overloads or are due to structural settlement and the cause cannot be removed, replacement or a structural overlay shall be required. Cracks due to occasional impact or overload may be repaired. Local fractures are cracks in which displacement of the section has occurred as a result of impact.
Evaluation of Damage
Evaluation of damage shall take into consideration its extent, cause, and likelihood of the cause still being active. The method of repair shall be dictated by the the type of damage, the availability of special equipment and repair materials, and the level of skill of the workers employed. Economic factors may influence the decision as to whether the repair shall be extensive and permanent, or limited in scope in response to an immediate problem.
Repair materials shall bond to the original structure, resist pollutions in the surrounding soil, water or air, and respond the same way to changes in temperature, moisture, and loads. Removal of deteriorated or chloride contaminated mortar trapped within the reinforcing mesh requires a large amount of hand labor, so it may be economical (and better for long term durability) to reconstruct or replace an entire area using the original structure as a form that can be left in place or removed after the overlaid structure has cured. Complete reconstruction shall be undertaken when chloride contamination, mesh corrosion, and deterioration of the mortar are extensive.
Testing for damage in ferrocement may be done by tapping with a hammer to break into any voids under the surface, or by drawing a metal bar over the surface and listening for sounds indicating voids or the presence deteriorated concrete. A high quality ferrocement should produce a bell like sound and resist moderately severe hammer blows without damage.
Surface Preparation for repair of damage
The primary adjective is to remove any deteriorated mortar or mortar contaminated with corrosive agents and to provide a surface to which the repair materials can be bonded properly. The rougher the surface, the greater the area available for bonding.
Removal of Deteriorated Concrete
As a first step in any repair or disintegrated, unsound, and contaminated mortar shall be removed. Saws and chipping hammers used for conventional concrete shall not be used for ferrocement unless large sections are to be completely removed.
Small areas shall be prepared by hand hammering just hard enough to pulverize deteriorated or cracked mortar, but not to the point of damaging the reinforcing mesh.
A pneumatic needle gun may be used for cleaning out broken ferrocement, opening out cracks and roughening the surface.
Particles of sound mortar embedded in the mesh need not be removed provided they are small enough not to interfere with the penetration of new mortar and they project from the finish surface.
Reinforcement
Any loose, scaly corrosion revealed on cleaning out the mortar shall be removed by sandblasting, water jet, air blasting, or vacuum methods.
An alternative method for removing rust is to brush naval jelly or spray dilute Phosphoric Acid over the repair area and flush thoroughly.
Where the mesh case has been displaced but is still intact, it may be pushed or jacked back in place and supported securely to withstand the pressure of applying the repair material. Where the reinforcement has been torn, the old mesh shall be laced back to close the opening.
When rods supporting the mesh is are torn they shall be spliced by a 15 diameter overlap of the partner rod or anchored by hooks.

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