The recommendations for designing earthquake resistant structure are provided below:
a. Selection of construction materials should be as per specifications (obviously good quality). The specification may of ASTM, BS, IS or any other local or regional code that accounts earthquake impact on structures and its elements.
b. Regarding foundation design, the structure should be on solid rock rather than loose materials. In case of solid rock the shear wave velocity is more than looser one and reflection and refraction of different types of earthquake waves between interface of two layer also effect seismic performance of foundation i.e. structure over it.
We discussed about different types of waves associated with earthquake agitation including their speed and arrival time and their capability to impact on a structure.
It is worth mentioning that a loose soil profile generally gets compacted under earthquake motion and definitely settlement also accompanied.
In case of loose sand with necessary moisture content, the soil may be subjected to liquefaction. We have published numerous posts about liquefaction and evaluation of liquefaction impact under different code.
c. The foundation should be rested on above mentioned soil and generally expected to have uniform depth. The details of the requirements for uniform depth will be discussed soon.
d. In designing an earthquake resistant building, it is focused on the simplification in both architectural plan and placing of different structural elements like (columns, beams, shear wall, pier etc.). Regarding foundation a square shape provides more stability than other geometric shapes.
Dear reader we will finish this topics in our next part. Here we have only idea about foundation and materials specification; in the next part we will have some necessary information about structural configuration and opening in structural and non-structural elements.