Some recommendation for configuring opening in structures and other issues to make structure more resistant against earthquake are listed below:
e. Opening as windows and doors are arrived inherently in both structural wall (shear wall) and non-structural walls. Opening in shear wall require some connections between both side (beams) which is called coupling beam. Coupling beam is a heavily reinforced member; depending on stiffness of it, two walls may perform as either composite or individual shear wall. We will learn about the design of coupling beam both manually and ETABS in our upcoming posts.
Whatever may be location of openings, it is expected to limit number of opening as less as possible. Few opening produce continuous nature of wall. The more discontinuity the more instability will accompanied.
f. A better performance is observed when openings (windows and doors) are not provided in identical vertical rows. It is expected to arrange in diagonals if practical.
g. Less non-structural elements should be included in structure say infill brick wall, low height or full height partitions, may be of aluminum or other materials. Reinforced cement concrete, steel structural elements are expected.
h. Floors and roofs provides some lateral stiffness to the structures and reinforced concrete monolithic roof provides additional stiffness (lateral) to structures preferably flat (nor pitched).
i. Height of structure should be, if possible, kept uniform; the goal behind this is also stability.
j. Some types of extra projections, if possible, should be ignored in both structural detailing and architectural plans.
Some examples of extra projections are:
k. During earthquake it is expected to behave, different parts of structure, as single unit. To achieve these, all parts of structure should be tied properly; special attention should be paid to corners and edges.