foundation system of burj al arab



The Information Age, which the world is rapidly entering, is the result of the convergence of computer & digital communications to permit instant worldwide transmission of voice, text, data & images which are responsible for societal changes.

In addition to transforming the economy and the nature of work, the impact of these changes is redefining the scale & nature of the urban form. Worldwide, changes in existing urban form and community links are precipitating the fusion of clustered metropolitan regions into a network of linked cities called the ‘Inter-Active Megalopolis’.The dynamic DHAKA city and CHITTAGONG city and COX’S BAZAR area ( and possible extension to nearby cities) has potential to be such an Inter-Active Megalopolis as it tailors itself to the information age. The trends spurred by the information age and stimulated by the expectations of the knowledge-based society are pushing commuters to travel further between the interactive regions in a Megalopolis cluster.

Commuters world wide prefer to be able to access their destination from their residence within an hour, be it to their work site, to a business meeting or shopping, recreation or entertainment. Unfortunately, no existing conventional transportation system technology can significantly reduce the commuting time for people working and interacting Megalopolis clusters.

In both industrialized and developing countries, road transport capacity is at (or approaching) saturation levels, conventional rail constrained and distances are too short for effective air operation. New access and mobility enhancing technologies to overcome the shortfalls of conventional moods are telecommunication and High Speed Transport (be it high speed steel wheel-on-rail, automated highway systems or tracked megnatically-livitated vehicles, known as MAGLEV).

The authors ‘judgment is that only a surface transportation system using off-line stations and elevated guide way non-contact high speed transport rail technology with its superior speed, capacity ,safety, reliability , maintainability and minimal impact on the environment compatible with the high expectations, mobile life style & easy & quick accessibility that the Information Age connotes.

The symposium’s topic of a high speed rail transport system intended to permit traveling from Dhaka to Chittagong in a short time compared with other transports which fits exactly with the expectations of commuters in the information age. Technically, this system can more readily be superimposed onto an existing urban and regional community form than any other transport means. It offers a higher level of service to the user.

The challenge, however, is how to predict the ridership of such new transportation technology, especially in the evolving Information Age context when there is no direct precedent from which to base an extrapolation. This projection and the fare pricing policy are key factors in the economics to justify constructing the infrastructure for this system.

Conventional transportation demand modeling will predictably arrive at ridership numbers too conservative to justify the large investment in a high speed transport system. The Project of this paper is that the demand for increased accessibility permitted by this system in an Information Age / Inter-Active Megalopolis context will primarily be due (in transportation engineering terms) to ‘induced travel demand’, that is, new ridership.

An essential first step in examining transportation issues and in making sound decisions on passenger transportation is to understand the full cost of transportation, including accident costs, the cost of damage to the environment, the cost of noise ,the cost of congestion and user time and the cost of providing infrastructure.

Furthermore, if cross subsides between modes, passenger group and religions are to be avoided and if users are to play the full cost of providing and maintaining the transportation system, it is important to know what proportion of total cost users pay and what proportion is borne by others. As we have noted above their has been significant interest in the development of HSR links in parts of California and yet there has been no research undertaken as to how such investment would compare with alternative investments in other modes of transportation. Nor has their been a complete assessment of the full costs of the different modes of transportation for intercity travel.

Sound investment in any mode of transportation must be based upon and understanding of how all costs vary with the size of the system, with the size of and the system, with usage of the system and within and across each cost component. Cost estimate can be divided into that portion which the user is paying and that portion which is borne by others in the system on different routes or through general taxes.

It can also be determined how much of a cost society incurs as a consequence of externalities that are generated by the different modes of transportation but not included in the price. Such a compilation would also illustrate the shift in financial burden , which would take place if charges were to be levied for air, water or noise pollution.

Our objectives in the study are to estimate the full long run cost of providing intercity passenger transportation services by High Speed Rail & Electromagnetic Rail, check feasibility among them and compare the feasible mode with competing highway and air modes. The cost calculation is to include the cost of building, operating & maintaining infrastructure, as well as carrier, user and social costs include noise and air pollution, safety or accident costs and congestion costs. User costs include both the cost of purchasing, maintaining and operating a vehicle such as a car, but also the cost of travel time.



Including capital costs of construction & debt service and costs of maintenance and operating costs as well as service costs to government or private sector(IOC).


Aggregate of all fares and tariffs paid by carries in capital costs to purchase a vehicle fleet(CCC) and maintain and operate a vehicle fleet(COC), minus those costs which are transfers to infrastructure, which we label Carrier Transfers(CT).


Aggregate of all fees, fares and tariffs paid by users in capital costs(UCC) to purchase, a vehicle and money spent to maintain and operate a vehicle or to ride on a carrier(UOC); minus those costs(such as fares) which are transfers to carriers or infrastructure, which we label user transfers(UT).


The amount of time spent traveling on a mode under uncongested conditions multiplied by the monetary value of time of congested time.


The amount of time spent traveling on a mode under uncongested condition minus the amount of time traveling in uncongested conditions multiplied by the monetary value of time of congested time.


Additional net external costs to society due to emissions (SEC), accidents (SAC), and noise (SNC) and are true resource costs used in making and using transportation services; Adding and subtracting the above factors, thereby avoiding double-counting, we have the following equation:

FC = ICC + IOC + CCC + COC - CT + UCC + UOC - UT + UTC + SEC + SNC + SAC

Each of these cost elements is a function of a number of parameters. Except for the fixed cost components, these elements depend on the amount of travel. In our study, we estimated flow dependent cost functions whenever possible. In the case of high speed rail, we use designs and alignments proposed by previous studies for the California Corridor.Table 1 lists the cost elements for each mode. Despite the different natures of these technologies, it is nonetheless possible to compare three categories broadly defined as: infrastructure costs, user operating costs, carrier operating costs, and social costs.

No comments:

Post a Comment