In India Black cotton soil spread over Maharashtra, western parts of Madhya Pradesh, parts of Andhra Pradesh, parts of Gujarat, some parts of Tamil Nadu and Deccan Lava Plateau. Among these the black cotton soils of Deccan Lava Plateau are discussed here.
Most of black-cotton soils of India are spread across the Deccan Lava Plateau, the Malwa Plateau, and interior Gujarat, where there is both moderate rainfall and underlying basaltic rock. Because of their high clay content, black soils develop wide cracks during the dry season, but their iron-rich granular structure makes them resistant to wind and water erosion. They are also highly moisture-retentive, thus responding well to irrigation.
The soil in the Deccan plateau is made up of black basalt soil. This type of soil is rich in humus. In addition to iron content they contain fairly high quantities of lime, magnesia and alumina.
Such texture and composition of soil are formed due to volcanic action of Deccan region. These igneous rocks break down in to the black soils rendering fertility to them. They commonly known as the black cotton soil because it is best suited for the cultivation of cotton.